The Civil War
The Civil War began when the Confederate army attacked Fort Sumter(the Union Army's fort) in 1861. The Buffalo Soldiers played a major role war in this war although they weren't allowed in either side's army. The first side to allow black people into their army was the union army. Blacks were used as cooks, laborers, and teamsters. There was a lot of military setbacks and the Union was losing the war, so there was a controversy over the use of Black Soldiers. Eventually, the Congress let the Black soldiers participate in the Armed forces in the Militia Act of July 17, 1862. During the fight, the black soldiers did so well in the battle they used the blacks more. Although they did well in the battles, blacks were still treated lower than whites. They got $10 regardless of their rank, but the lowest rank white soldier got $13. After a debate over pay, blacks got identical pay as whites. The war ended in 1865 and the Confederate army lost.
The Confederate army finally enlisted blacks into their army at the end of the war. But at that time they were losing too badly and the black soldiers couldn't help them. If the Confederate army enlisted them into the army earlier, they could have won the war.
The Buffalo Soldiers got their name from the indians because of the way they looked. Their short curly hair and dark faces resembled the buffalo, and they also had the spirit of an animal.
In 1867, there were four black regiments:the 9th and 10th Cavalry units and the 24th and 25th Infantry units-the "Buffalo Soldiers". The first black regiment to the get the name of the Buffalo Soldiers was the 10th Cavalry unit but later on the other army regiments got the name.
After their formation in 1866 they looked for a location for a fort southwest the Indian Territory. This was all done during the Indian War .They found a site near the base of of the Wichita mountains. They named the fort Camp Wichita but later on they named it Fort Sill. The fort was used as base of operations for the campaign of the army against the Kiowa and Cheyenne tribes. The leader of this fort was Colonel Benjamin Grierson .
At the end of the 1870's more people tried to sneak into Indian Territory. Those people were called Boomers and it was up to the Buffalo Soldiers to prevent them from getting there amd also getting rid of the people already in Indian Territory. To accomplish those tasks they had to use Fort Sill, Fort Supply, and newly constructed Fort Reno along with the 9th cavalry in lots of missions.
The Boomers tried to enter Arkansas, Missouri, and Texas. It was very hard to stop[ the Boomers though and the Buffalo soldiers had to do a lot to stop them.
The Buffalo Soldiers patroled the area for about four years until 1885. At that time the men of the 9th were given a break and transfered to do duty in Wyoming. The men of the 10th regiment headed west to Arizona and there chased Geronimo(an Apache Chief). The patrol for the Boomers was left in the hands of other units.
The pressure to open the Indian Territory for pioneers increased. Finally, Congress purchased a giant tract of unassigned land for farming in an area that is now in and around Oklahoma City. At noon on April 22, 1889, the area was opened to new settlement. In this first Oklahoma land rush, homesteaders arrived on foot, horseback, and in wagons. Gradually the white settlers sought more power. They worked to have their land recognized as a separate territory. In a short time the western half of the Indian Territory was organized as the Territory of Oklahoma. This new land included the Panhandle.
To increase the amount of land for settlers, the federal government assigned individual plots of tribal lands to the Indians then took over what remained of their reservations for 15 cents an acre. The land rushes continued until 1907 when Oklahoma became the 46th State in the Union.
The Spanish American War
One of the last wars the Buffalo Soldiers participated in was the Spanish American War. In this war the Buffalo Soldiers finally got most of the respect they deserved.
The Spanish American War was fought to get Cuba's independence from Spain. The United States gave Spain an ultimatum and Spain didn't cooperate, so the US sent the 9th and 10th cavalries and the 24th and 25th regiments out. The Buffalo Soldiers fought courageously in the war and lots of commanders commended them for that.With the help of the Buffalo Soldiers the Cubans won the war and earned their independence.
From the Civil War to the Spanish-American War, Blacks have gained more and more respect over the years. Their migration was acually in the terms of respect. After each war they won little battles such as equal pay and being able to get the Congressional Medal of honer. At the end of all the fights blacks were set free and given almost everything whites were. Even though they faced prejudice, they still had more respect than they did in the Civil War.
1861- The Confederate Army attacked Fort Sumter and initiated the Civil War
1865- Civil war ended and the Union wins war with the help of the Buffalo Soldiers
1866- US got 67 peacetime regiments including 6 all black regiments(with white commanders)
Fort Sill founded near the Wichita mountains
1867- The six black regiments were reduced to four and are later on named the Buffalo Soldiers.
1881- 9th cavalry were given a four year rest until 1885
1889- the Oklahoma Land Rushes began
1898- the Spanish American War began
1907- Oklahoma Land rushes ended and Oklahoma became the 46th state
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